The inflammatory process in the urethra – urethritis, often strikes young men. The disease does not pass independently, it must be treated. But it is important to differentiate infectious urethritis and its symptoms in men symptoms of non-infectious nature. The result of the treatment depends on correct and timely diagnosis.
The accepted classification and staging
The difference of urethritis in men symptoms and treatment due to the type of pathogen, the stage of the process, underlying medical conditions. Relying on the cause of the inflammation, there are two groups.
Infectious urethritis, which is caused by certain species of microorganisms:
- the tubercle Bacillus
Noncommunicable urethritis, the occurrence of which is not related to the introduction of pathogens:
- allergic reaction
- violation of the mucous membrane after
- medical procedures or injuries
- violation of blood circulation in pelvis, congestion
- obstruction of outflow of urine
For the duration of the course there are acute and chronic processes, each of which has its own stages of development and clinical picture.
Acute urethritis in men occurs in three stages:
- The latent period is characterized by the absence of symptoms, can last from 2 – 3 days up to a month.
- The period of pronounced clinic.
- Recovery or chronic illness and the transition in the indolent form.
Chronic process has two distinct stages:
- Relapse – exacerbation of all symptoms, occurs under the influence of adverse factors.
- Remission – hidden inflammation is characterized by prolonged period of blurred manifestations.
The causes and factors that trigger attachment
Symptoms of urethritis in men and causes are closely related.
- Infections that are transmitted through sexual contact. The main part of the disease is infection by the gonococcus, chlamydia and Trichomonas.
- Conventionally-pathogenic microflora, normally present in everyone, but suppressed by the immune system. These include: Escherichia coli, Candida, staphylococci, streptococci.
Non-infectious causes of diseases are associated with stagnation of urine, lack of flushing the urinary canal in a natural way, violation of the integrity of the mucosa.
- The formation of kidney stones.
- Manipulations associated with the examination of the urinary tract: cystoscopy, catheterization.
- Allergic processes.
- Tumours of education.
Besides these causes of urethritis in men, there are factors that weaken the immune system, and contribute to the rapid reproduction of pathogenic flora:
- long hypothermia;
- poor nutrition, abuse salty and spicy foods, vitamin deficiencies;
- physical inactivity, stagnation of blood in the pelvis;
- the total decrease in the protective forces in the face of excessive physical and mental stress;
- neglect of personal hygiene;
- the influence of chemical stimuli.
In rare cases, the disease develops when the penetration of infection from a chronic focus with a current blood or lymph.
Common symptoms of the acute period
Regardless of the causative agent of the symptoms of urethritis in men have several things in common. They can occur in full or limited to a few manifestations, to be present continuously or episodically. Typically, the inflammatory process is limited to the local symptoms. There is a burning sensation and pain when urinating, frequency of urination increases, while the urine becomes muddy colour. In some cases, detect blood clots.
In addition to the General signs, there are symptoms specific to a particular pathogen. They often differ in nature and intensity selections. Consider how inflammation occurs in the urethra of different etiologies.
It starts badly, develops rapidly. Gonorrhea is extreme pain in the time urination, intense inflammation, hyperemia, edema of the head of the penis. Due to the large number of pus, the urine becomes muddy colour. For gonococcal infections are characterized by yellow discharge with blood.
Is characterized by a constant unbearable itching, difficulty with bladder emptying. The process is pain and burning sensation. From the urethra through poor grayish-white discharge, and semen detected traces of blood.
Chlamydial urethritis in men is often asymptomatic, causing a great risk of its transition into the chronic form. Burning and pain short and a little bent. The allocation of colorless or with a small amount of pus, and the poor are rapidly.
Candida lose refers to non-specific inflammation and occurs when the decrease in the protective forces of the body. It is characterized strongest pruritus, burning sensation, swelling and redness of the head. The allocation of thick, cheesy, white or pinkish-white color.
Viral urethritis is characterized by a slightly pronounced relapsing. With the weakening of immunity may cause specific rashes around the external opening of the urethra. Exacerbation may be accompanied by General malaise, aching in the joints.
Has a huge variation in the incubation period, the first symptoms can be noticed after 2 – 3 months after infection. Hallmark – purulent discharge from the urethra, other symptoms are weak, fuzzy.
In this form of inflammation of the allocation do not exist, but after the injury there may be traces of blood in the urine. When stagnation occurs violation of urination, in allergic inflammation – swelling of the fittest.
Manifestations of chronic form of the disease
What is urethritis in males in the chronic form? It is indolent, almost asymptomatic inflammatory process, in which flows the disease in the absence of necessary treatment. It can last for years with alternating periods of calm and exacerbation.
Relapses usually occur after an illness or prolonged physical and emotional stress. The symptoms resemble an acute stage with pain, impaired urination and discharge from the urethral canal, but in a more benign form. In the absence of adequate therapy, the manifestations gradually subside, and there is a phase of calm.
In the period of remission the symptoms subside or even remind yourself a small burning sensation, occasional scanty discharge. The General condition does not suffer, urinary function is not compromised. Despite the clinic, a chronic form of dangerous complications.
Acute inflammation of the urethra can occur in isolation, but in the absence of treatment in the infectious process involved the surrounding organs and tissues. In men, urethritis often goes:
- inflammation of the foreskin;
- with involvement of the prostate gland;
- with orchitis – infection of the testicles;
- inflammation of the bladder.
Combined cystitis and urethritis in men have one of the pathogen in 90% of cases, Escherichia coli, and infections that are transmitted through sexual contact. Aggravating factors include: hypothermia, prolonged stress, severe viral disease and weakening of immune forces.
Acute cystitis in men manifests itself as follows:
- pain and cramps when emptying;
- hyperemia and edema of the mucosa;
- difficulty urinating;
- purulent and bloody discharge from the urethra;
- discomfort in the lower abdomen, aching pain.
After identification of the pathogen, combined urethritis and cystitis are treated in the same manner. Therapy should be brought to an end, as both diseases are prone to chronic process.
Before deciding how to treat urethritis in men, it is necessary to conduct a survey to identify the pathogen and determine its sensitivity to drugs. Diagnosis begins with history taking and visual inspection.
Takes the total blood test to determine the intensity of inflammation the number of leukocytes. Urinalysis for rent in the morning – the first emptying after a night's sleep. Urine analysis allows to identify the infectious agent and to conduct sensitivity analysis to antibiotics. Discharge from the urethra in men is also subject to bacterial culture and microscopic examination. All laboratory tests are conducted on the background of complete exclusion of antibiotics. In some cases, may require instrumental examination, ultrasonography of pelvic organs, radiography, endoscopy of the bladder and urethra.
Treatment of urethritis in men does not require hospitalization and successfully performed on an outpatient basis. The choice of drugs depends on the form of the disease and the results of the bacterial analysis. The main group used therapy – antibiotics. Methods of administration vary and are agreed between the doctor and patient. Medications can be taken in pill form, it is administered by intramuscular or intravenous injection, or delivered directly to the lesion with the catheter. Consider the drugs for the treatment of urethritis in men, depending on identified pathogen.
Gonococcal and bacterial inflammation
In 40% of cases is monotherapy with cephalosporin antibiotics. In chronic process is more often assigned to the tetracycline group. Complicated gonorrheal urethritis in men is treated by a combination of several groups of drugs.
Antibiotic therapy requires preventive reception antimycotic drugs. Mandatory assigned immunomodulators and vitamins.
To control the efficiency of treatment is necessary three times, with a certain time interval, to be tested for the detection of the gonococcus.
To treat this kind of applies a time-tested course taking metronidazole or once at the maximum possible dose. Shown taking immunostimulatory drugs and fortified supplements.
The incidence of chlamydia
How to treat chlamydial infection is determined by the physician based on the result of the bacterial analysis. The best result gives the treatment course antibiotic and tetracycline. In conjunction with antibacterial prescribed hormonal therapy.
The finding in the urethra in men is a fungal infection requires antifungal therapy in the form of tablets. Topically used antifungal ointment. Great importance is given immune-stimulating therapy.
More common infection with herpes simplex virus 1 and type 2. In this case, treatment of urethritis in men drugs antiviral action. There is an opinion that completely cure herpes virus is not possible, but it is possible to achieve stable remission.
Inflammation of unknown etiology
30 – 40% of cases the infectious agent cannot be established, however, held antibacterial therapy gives good results. How to cure urethritis in men, no further diagnosis? Appointed by broad-spectrum antibiotics of several groups. Additionally introduced antifungal and tonic. The scheme may change at the discretion of the attending doctor.
Therapy inflamed bladder
The infectious process often extends beyond the urethra, so consider how to treat cystitis in conjunction with urethritis. Becomes a major pathogen of bacterial microflora. Her treatment trust the macrolide antibiotics, ftorhinolon or tetracycline. In addition is assigned to prophylactic antifungal therapy and taking a multivitamin.
The inflammation of the urethra in boys
In children, the main causative agent of disease is E. coli. Urethritis occurs in boys more often than girls, due to the development of phimosis and, as a consequence, the creation of favorable environment for the growth of pathogenic flora.
The child becomes restless, he was tormented by the itching, painful urination. Can be whitish with an admixture of pus discharge. The urine becomes cloudy with blood. Treatment of urethritis in men and treatment in children is antibiotics, but unlike adults selection means for a child is conducted more carefully, focusing on the age group.
Complications and forecasts
In a male sense to go to the doctor with a similar problem a shame, but late or not the right treatment threatens many complications. The infection can spread to the surrounding organs, causing cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis. The result is a violation of sexual functions and infertility.
Chlamydial infection appears as a lesion of articular tissues and systematic conjunctivitis. Purulent urethritis leads to structural changes of the mucous membrane of the urinary canal, its expansion and narrowing of the lumen.
When properly carried out the treatment can quickly and completely get rid of the problem, the prognosis in this case is favorable.
Understanding the causes of urethritis, and that it is easy to determine preventive measures:
- the deletion of doubtful sex;
- use condoms as protection;
- to adhere to the rules of hygiene;
- attentive to their health, in case of doubtful symptoms, immediately consult doctor;
- in the period of enhanced psycho – physical stress to take vitamin complexes;
- to avoid hypothermia;
- stick to a balanced diet, not to get involved with harmful products;
- to strengthen the immune system.
Acute inflammation brings a lot of unpleasant symptoms, but neglected, not cured, the process is much worse than their long-term consequences. About 40% of men of retirement age suffer from prostatitis, and this is a direct consequence of chronic urethritis. The sad statistics, because the inflammation of the urinary channel is quite treatable with all the recommendations.