Male infertility: the main causes and methods of diagnosis

Recently a serious problem both in medical and social has become infertility in men and diagnosis of various causes of inability to conceive offspring.

Male infertility is a violation of male reproductive function. It is a consequence of changes in the quality and quantity of sperm resulting from inflammatory processes in the genital organs, infectious diseases and chronic conditions.

To date, infertility in men is relevant along with female infertility. According to statistics, the proportion of childless couples through the fault of men is 45%. If during the year with regular sexual intercourse the woman has not become pregnant, the sexual partner is considered infertile.

Male infertility

Causes of male infertility

There are many different reasons that ultimately don't allow a man to be a father. Only properly conducted examination can establish the final diagnosis of the disease. The main causes of infertility in men include:

  1. Varicocele is one of the reasons for inferiority. The basis of pathology lies varicose vascular dilation of the spermatic cord, serving as the outlet channel of sperm. Because of illness the temperature rises in the testis, which eventually affects the condition of the sperm. To determine the existence of a varicocele can only be a doctor.
  2. Genital injuries or defects in their development – a significant reason why the man is not capable of fertilization. The main defects are: the presence of only one testicle, popushina them in the scrotum, a defect in the development of the penis in which the urethra opens below the top of the head.
  3. Genetic faults are cause not only male infertility, but the birth of children with genetic anomalies, which are further inherited. The presence of faults at the genetic level is sometimes not possible to apply the method ECO, because there is a likelihood of having a baby with serious diseases and the result is an expensive procedure may be ineffective.
  4. Infections that are sexually transmitted (trichomoniasis, syphilis, and others).
  5. Infections that cause damage to cells, the function of which is the production of spermatozoa: brucellosis, mumps and others.
  6. Inflammatory processes in the prostate and ureters.
  7. The reasons that are sexual in nature – lack of erection, or lack thereof, premature ejaculation. To solve such problems will not andrologist and sexologist.
  8. The tumor in the testis – benign and malignant are the leading cause of erectile dysfunction and male infertility.
  9. The decline and weakness of the immune system.
  10. Regular medication and antibiotics for a long time.

The types of male infertility

Inability to conceive is determined by two characteristics: anatomical and functional.

Infertility secretory – develops on the basis of violations of the formation and maturation of sperm. Can be both temporary and permanent.

Temporary disorders are associated with harmful factors: increased body temperature, environment, harmful, toxic fumes and so on. Eliminating the impact of these factors restores the natural process of formation and maturation of sperm.

Permanent infertility – the reason for this is genetic abnormalities or congenital disorders in the development of the channels in the epididymis. Defeat cell canalicular system can be observed when the disease epidemic parotitis and also in autoimmune disease. Atrophy of the cells of the seminiferous tubules and epididymis lesion is an irreversible phenomenon.

Excretory infertility is the cause of the difficulty is the passage of sperm in the seed excretory ducts. The obstacle of passing can cause adhesions in the tubules of the epididymis of one of the testicles. Sperm cannot get into the semen. Usually adhesions are formed due to inflammatory processes, benign and malignant tumors in the tissues of the testicles because of injuries.

Autoimmune infertility is a result of the breach of the barrier between the vessels and channels for making seed. Blood begins to develop the immune response – their own sperm takes the body of an alien invasion. A consequence of antisperm antibodies begin to decrease sperm motility and the last to die at all.

Combined infertility – the reason is the violation of the maturation of spermatozoa, and the presence of additional obstacles for ejaculation.

Relative infertility is defined when the visible reasons are not available: semen analysis is normal, your sex life, there are no obstacles, but the long-awaited conception can not occur. The reason for this type of infertility is a violation of hygiene during sexual intercourse.

Diagnosis of infertility in men

After a medical examination, the man is prescribed a analysis of semen, which is repeated two to three times. It is highly recommended to refrain from sexual intercourse and Masturbation for two to three days.

The rate of volume ejaculator is three to five ml, but if the quantity is less than the prescribed norms – this suggests hypofunction of the testes. If semen volume less than two ml, even in spite of the positive sperm, to conceive a child is unlikely as the semen volume is small. One milliliter of semen should contain not less than twenty million sperm, low number of them speaks of oligozoospermia, which develops on the background hypofunction of the testes or unilateral obstruction of the seed paths. This leads to infertility men.

In bilateral obstruction with absence of sperm in the semen we are talking about azoospermia. To fertilize the egg, you need only one sperm, but reduced their number to one million conception is impossible. At the time of ejaculation on the cervix get two hundred million sperm, more than half of which overcomes the mucous plug of the cervical tubules, but only a small part of the sperm will reach the mouth of the tubes of the uterus. Due to the fact that the egg is located only in one of the fallopian tubes, it will cover only half of the sperm cells. So, the less they in the ejaculate, the less chances for conception. When a critical decrease in the rate of sperm, the diagnosis of male infertility.

The main number of sperm has a rectilinear movements or chaotic. Reduced number of motile sperm is called asthenozoospermia, the absence of them – necrozoospermia.


The frequency of sexual contact depends on both the mobility and quantity of sperm ejaculator. So the patient during diagnosis of infertility it is recommended to abstain from sex to obtain reliable results semen. Making straight sexual intercourse, sperm to lose fertility and contraception is not required.

If couples do not refrain from sex before conception, they can be infertile, because if you frequently acts in semen increased numbers of immature spermatozoa, which have low viability, and mobility. The greatest number of Mature, viable sperm in the semen only after several days of abstinence.

Morphological analysis estimates the percentage of normal sperm. If the majority of them have full – fledged building, it is the norm, lower number is called teratozoospermia. Many men who are examined, one finds sometimes the agglutination of spermatozoa, which is contrary to normal levels. Sperm should not be present plots of clusters of sperm, as the sperm is heterogeneous, and areas that have a high density and intense color and also slow down the speed of the sperm. This change in sperm that lead to infertility are a consequence of inflammatory pelvic disease, and hormonal disorders in the body.

A large number of leukocytes warns inflammatory processes in the urogenital tract.

Well as the examination requires consultation with a urologist to identify the following diseases: vesiculitis, prostatitis, and epididymitis.

The functioning of the reproductive system in men

Sperm is the male reproductive cell, which contains paternal genes. Information about genes is concentrated in the sperm head, and due to the tail of the sperm moves and reaches the egg. First he moves along the channels, which pass in straight tubules and into the epididymis.

The length of all the tubules is about five hundred meters. Moving slowly channels, the sperm has time to Mature and can fertilize an egg. In the epididymis it is at the final stage of its growth and then enters through the seed in the excretory duct of the seminal vesicles. Here the sperm accumulates, and is then blended with epithelial secret, containing nutrients, is suitable for sperm. Further, from the seed bubble seed liquid begins to evacuate in the period of ejaculation, mixed with a secret in the prostate gland. This formed a liquid called semen.

The main cause of infertility in men are: obstruction of the channel, if not wrest the sperm from the urethra because of the obstacles encountered, the violation of the secretory function.

Treatment of infertility in men

There are many methods of treatment of this disease men's:

  1. Surgery – varicocele can be cured by a surgical operation, but obstruction of the duct can only evade. Patency is restored after the procedure of vasectomy. If in the semen no sperm, it is possible to obtain from the testicle or its appendages (epididymis) and then to use for fertilization by artificial means.
  2. Treatment of diseases on the background of infection – antibiotics fight infectious diseases sexual way, but sometimes antibiotic therapy to restore the fertility issues not.
  3. Treatment of sexual problems – medical medicines and advice of professional experts will help to solve such pathology, as erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.
  4. Therapy hormonal – this treatment is given in case of deviation in the concentration of certain hormones in the blood.
  5. Artificial insemination is a normal sperm (from donor after extraction), enter them in the female's genital tract and fertilization, bypassing the woman's body (intracytoplasmic injection). Rarely male fertility is not restored, but the couple still have a chance to use donor sperm.

Risk factors

The factors that trigger the inability to conceive include:

  • Use of illicit drugs,
  • Excessive alcohol consumption,
  • Overweight,
  • Smoking,
  • Infectious diseases
  • Trauma to the testicles
  • Toxic substances and fumes,
  • Violation of the temperature in the testicles
  • Surgery abdominal, pelvic, vasectomy,
  • Congenital disorder of fertility of men or family,
  • Pathology – varieties of tumors, chronic diseases,
  • Surgical intervention
  • Certain therapies – therapy laser and more.

Infertility prevention

The news of infertility becomes men tragic surprise. Women are also a shock, upon learning of the futility of the partner, but it pales in comparison to the pain through which passes the man in the news, because in the subconscious of most men identificeret his manhood with the function of sexual organs. And is the news about the inability to have children causes a painful blow to the ego. Sometimes a man leaves the family, believing themselves not entitled to create a serious relationship. Often this situation ends with alcoholism, the relationship between husband and wife are changing not for the better.

Many men abandon surveys because they are afraid to hear about the infertility. But if in the family there is a problem with conception, it is necessary to adhere to the recommendations of the experts, how to conduct your sex life. In this situation, the partners sometimes disdain love games, foreplay and only think about performing your doctor's advice. This has an adverse impact on relations between partners.

Incompatibility between husband and wife

In some couples there is a factor of immune infertility, in which the body men and women produces specific proteins. They have detrimental effect on sperm cells and do not allow them to interact with the egg. This is the reason for the incompatibility of the partners. In such cases, the study of male blood and semen for antibodies.

Treatment of male infertility


The diet required the presence of the following products: nuts, honey, fish, cheese, sea foods. Garlic, vegetable oil, fruits, vegetables and herbs.


Adversely affect the functioning of the male reproductive system by the following factors: fatigue, stress, saunas, Smoking, poor working conditions, alcohol, and drugs. Rare sexual relations lead to stagnation in the reproductive system. Even a sedentary lifestyle have a negative effect on fertility. If you properly organize your way of life, it is possible to manage without using drug therapy.

Normal sleep is controlled by physical activity, appropriate weight, correction of sexual life, proper nutrition and raise the tone of the reproductive system.

According to the latest measurements, statistics, one in four men able to conceive a child after a long but fruitful treatment. Effectiveness in the treatment of male infertility is 15% more than success in the treatment of female infertility.