The inability of the Mature male body for fertilization is called infertility. The problem occurs, usually with repeated unsuccessful attempts of conception in the couple. According to statistics, Russian families in 45% of cases put infertility in men as the main cause of the inability to conceive a child.
Causes of male infertility
This mentality that the first goes to the doctor a woman. And if after a comprehensive survey it is found that she is healthy, the reproductive system is ready to conceive, there is a suspicion against the partner.
For successful fertilization and embryo development must meet the following criteria:
- full spermatogenesis of sperm right;
- maturation of sperm;
- physiologically normal ejaculation;
- the activity of sperm out of the male genital tract until the merge with the egg and complete fertilization.
Infertility in men may be congenital or acquired. Congenital inability to fertilization develops as a result of various pathologies in the development of testicles (cryptorchidism, hypogonadism, etc.). Frequent violations in the development of the urethra. More likely to be diagnosed hypospadias, stricture. When these anomalies of sperm is not deposited in the vagina.
Diseases that lead to infertility in men
Acquired causes of male infertility are numerous. Most often this condition is associated with a history diseases. Chronic inflammatory diseases alter normal spermatogenesis, lead to the formation of abnormal sperm unable to fertilize. Induce the inability to conceive following pathology:
- mumps (mumps);
- diseases that are transmitted sexually;
- non-infectious inflammatory processes;
- developmental abnormalities of the reproductive system (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, varicocele, hypogonadism);
- diabetes mellitus;
- injury to the reproductive organs, surgery;
- hormonal disorders;
- the genetic factor.
Infertility in men, the causes of which are, as a rule, are complex, is usually placed.
Factors that contribute to the development of pathology
In addition to pathologies, accompanied by phenomena of inflammation, circulatory disorders, hormonal changes, there are contributing factors. Their presence worsens the effects of major cause or is the starting mechanism of development of disorders of the reproductive system of the body.
Factors of infertility in men is very diverse:
- work with harmful production factors (ionizing radiation, vibration, chemicals, electromagnetic waves);
- lack of exercise, sedentary work;
- addictions (alcoholism, Smoking);
- professional Cycling exercise;
- tight underwear;
- overheating and overcooling of the pelvis;
- psycho-emotional overload, stress.
Not so terrible at first glance, all these factors have a negative impact on sperm indices. Its qualitative and quantitative characteristics decrease.
The types of male infertility and their features
The nature of sterility is of three types:
- The secretory form of infertility manifests itself in the inability of the gonads to develop a sufficient number of active sperm. Often this is due to disruption of blood supply to the tissues of the testes. Thus, the male sex cells have the defects, their levels in semen dramatically reduced.
- Autoimmune infertility. Violation of reproductive ability in men in this case – a complex form of diagnosis and treatment. Factors of infertility in auto-immune mechanism often are trauma, surgery. Antisperm antibodies perceive their own sex cells like alien antibodies. They reduce the sperm motility, can negatively affect the process of spermatogenesis. Sperm cannot penetrate the cervical fluid.
- Excretory infertility. The reason for excretory disorders are often inflammatory diseases, malformations of the urethra and the accessory genital glands. Cause infertility may obstruction of the VAS deferens, and aspermatism. In this form changes the qualitative indicators of semen: reduced concentration of sperm, their activity is abnormal germ cells.
If conception in autoimmune infertility happened, antibodies violate the splitting of a zygote, impede the development of the embryo, can cause abortion in the early stages.
Signs and symptoms of male infertility
Symptoms of infertility in men are often vague, unspecific. Sexual Constitution, sexual activity does not affect the ability to conceive. As a rule, infertile men are very sexually active, have sexual impotence, impotence. The man himself is often not aware of your problem. No apparent symptoms of physical ailments in violation of the fertility ability is not observed.
In 90% of cases male infertility occurs almost asymptomatic. It is characterized by one essential feature: the absence of fertilization during a regular sexual life during one year without contraceptives on the background fertility of the female partner.
|Clear signs of male infertility||Indirect signs of reproductive disorders|
Autoimmune and genetic abnormalities have no clinical signs.
Various causes of infertility in men, signs of illness, which do not have obvious manifestations, leading to delayed treatment for the qualified help of specialists. This insidious abnormalities are identified, usually only after years of fruitless attempts of men to acquire offspring.
Diagnosis of male infertility
The diagnosis of infertility is established after a comprehensive survey of the male body. The doctor collects a thorough history, analyzes the factors that may lead to infringement of reproductive function. Some developmental pathology (hyposadias, cryptorchidism) diagnosed in the newborn age.
Varicocele is detected during the medical examination in case of men complaining of soreness during intercourse. During the inspection is also evident hypogonadism.
The most informative are the following methods:
- the quality and quantity of seminal fluid;
- comprehensive blood and urine tests;
- immunological studies;
- tests for sexually transmitted diseases;
- studies of prostate secretion;
- the DNA analysis.
In most cases, the interpretation of semen gives a complete picture of reproductive ability of men. This informative microstructural and morphological analysis allows to judge the motility of the sperm, their number. Semen analysis reveals defects in the structure of male germ cells, viscosity of semen, its acidity, etc.
An ultrasound study allows to exclude diseases and pathology of the prostate and testicles. For the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the used microscopic methods of investigation of biological fluids.
Hormonal tests aimed at determination of the concentration of blood testosterone, estrogen and other hormones. According to their results evaluated hormones of the male body, which is important in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.
If you suspect obstruction of the seminiferous tubules, the doctor will prescribe x-ray examination with a contrast agent. Men who suffer from varicocele, can be assigned a Doppler.
If necessary, will be assigned additional research methods, consultation with an endocrinologist, andrologist, sexologist.
It is worth noting that men are quite difficult to decide on passing the diagnosis due to the fact that most of the procedures they perceive as humiliating, and another part is pretty painful. It is very important to support her husband, to work together to overcome the difficulties encountered on the way to pregnancy.
Prevention of male infertility
The etiology of violations of reproductive ability of the male body diverse. Therefore, prevention of infertility is complex. To take care of men's health needs from childhood. Compulsory regular visits to the surgeon and urologist at puberty.
A healthy lifestyle is one of the main preventive measures of infertility. Moderate exercise, physical activity – key to improving functions of the reproductive system. Important full disclaimer men from Smoking and drinking alcohol. Unwanted frequent overheating (baths, saunas) and hypothermia.
A balanced diet, rich in proteins, nutrients, vitamins and minerals – good prevention not only infertility, but a strong immune system. Food should be healthy, natural. Excluded from the diet spicy, smoked, fried dishes. The basis of food should be fish, meat, vegetables and fruit. Plays an important role protecting the male body from stress and negative emotional factors. Regular full sexual life with the constant partner also has a beneficial effect on the ability of fertile men.
Infertility in men is a problem not only medical but also social. The impaired fertility of the ability of a strong half leads to emotional problems in the family, lowers the quality of social life. It is therefore necessary as early as possible to seek medical consultation, to begin to live a healthy lifestyle to eliminate factors that contribute to the development of reproductive dysfunction in men.