Prostatic hyperplasia, otherwise BPH is the most common disease among the strong half of mankind, which has reached the milestone of 50 years. This disease is caused by the spontaneous growth of the prostate and the overlap of the lumen of the urethra. In this deteriorating urine output, starts the accumulation in the urinary bladder of pathogenic bacteria that cause a variety of complications.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia: causes, symptoms, clinical picture
The prostate gland is one of the most important internal organs which takes part in the performance of male reproductive function. With age, this body may be formed of a seal, the clumps of matter, tangles of fibers. These tumors are called hyperplasia. To date, this pathology can be successfully treated with medication and by direct surgical intervention. The most important thing is to detect the presence of disease and start therapy, then it is possible to achieve positive results even without the intervention of surgeons.
Since the prostate passes the urethra, because of the increased size of the organ, the channel is pinched. This causes the main symptom of this disease is a delay in urination. Usually, this becomes evident when at one time the urine is allocated less number of impulses increases, and the stream at the same time, "fade". We also need to make efforts in order to make urination. In this case the patient is experiencing discomfort. In sexual life, he becomes less active, an erection occurs with difficulty and not always.
Among the reasons it is possible to allocate mainly genetic predisposition and age. Age is a key factor in men, who more than forty years, the adenoma is more common. Do not trust myths about the fact that venereal diseases transferred earlier, can cause the development of tumors. Also it is not irregular sexual life.
Part of the symptoms have already been named, but, in addition to the above, it should be called such:
- it seems that after urination the bladder is not fully emptied;
- erectile dysfunction;
- night urination;
- this process can be interrupted.
Briefly about the types of interventions
The prostate occurs several surgical ways.
It is worth saying that this is not necessarily a classic cavernous surgery, medicine today offers other less invasive ways of removing the hyperplasia.
The prostate cancer presents a benign tumor, which is located in the tissues of the prostate.
The tumor does not give metastases, and does not penetrate into surrounding organs and tissues, however, the removal of the adenoma shown in some cases.
If earlier the disease was considered the prerogative of men after 45-50 years, now more and more recorded cases of the disease starting at 25 years of age.
The most effective method of treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the removal of the prostate invasive or minimally invasive method. There are several types of surgical interventions distinguishes them from each other the complexity, the list of complications and the cost of prostate surgery. To select the best option, you need to study the effects of surgery to remove the prostate and feedback on various options.
Surgery offers the following surgical treatment of adenoma:
- open adenomectomy;
- TUR (transurethral resection);
- laparoscopiceski methods;
- minimally invasive intervention (laser and electrical vaporization, laser ablation, microwave thermotherapy, cryosurgery, enucleation, etc.).
Most often used method ROUND. For the longest time surgeons practicing abdominal adenomectomy. Are the least traumatic minimally invasive methods, but their use is not always possible. The laser is the most modern and effective method of treating BPH.
Life expectancy for prostate cancer grade 3
According to statistics, every second case of prostate cancer in Russia, it is diagnosed at the third stage. Generally, men are even feeling the discomfort and soreness, postpone visit to the doctor for such a delicate topic and come when the cancer has already significantly spread beyond the prostate. This stage is characterized by:
- metastases in nearby organs – the intestine, bladder, or seminal vesicles;
- a significant violation of potency;
- the presence of blood in urine and semen;
- pain in the perineum and lower back.
What are the effects of surgical removal of the prostate in men?
Every surgery has a certain negative outcome.
Often after the removal of the prostate consequences occur almost always.
Is determined that the patient later turns for help to a specialist, as a result, the disease progresses, and time to diagnosis remains too little.
It should be noted that the occurrence of consequences depends largely on the skill of the surgeon and the selected receiving surgical intervention. Also important in the postoperative period of play the individual characteristics of the patient and speed the recovery function.
It should be noted the most common consequences after removal of the adenoma:
- incontinence or retention of urine;
- of bleeding or the presence of internal bleeding;
- the lack of an erection or retrograde ejaculation;
- the inability to conceive a child;
A prostate biopsy involves bad consequences.
The reason of the appearance of these unpleasant symptoms can be repeated biopsy. It often happens that all the above effects take place in a few days and do not cause big trouble to the patients.
How is surgery for BPH?
After surgery to remove the prostate adenoma therapy the patient is prescribed painkillers, antibiotics for the prevention of inflammatory processes of urinogenital sphere, diuretics, diet and therapeutic exercises for the pelvic floor.
After the operation, there are slight complications:
- minor impurity of blood and blood clots in urine for weeks;
- incontinence, frequent urination, which is gradually taking place by itself;
- stinging during urination usually disappears when the catheter is removed from the urethra;
- during ejaculation possible to reverse the reflux of semen into the bladder (it is safe).
The cause of the disease is disruptions in the hormonal system. That is the level of testosterone is considerably reduced, but the estrogens, on the contrary, increase.
Treatment of BPH depends entirely on the extent of its neglect. If the disease was discovered in the first or second stage, the approximate sequence of therapy will be this:
- drug therapy;
- proper hygiene;
- physiological procedures.
- radical prostatectomy;
- transurethral resection;
Usually at the initial stage of the disease, when the symptoms bother enough and occur to a lesser extent, patients prescribed drug treatment prostatic hyperplasia.
But if the disease has reached the level, when to treat with drugs is not possible, using the method of surgical intervention. This method is more effective than medication, but it has its drawbacks and risks, treatment can be called risky.
The most popular versions of operations of BPH:
- Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
The bottom line is that the urethra of the patient introduced a special device called a resectoscope. During the intervention the patient is in the supine position, with legs spread, which bent at the knees. With this instrument, inserted through the external opening of the urethra, and surgery is performed.
Using this device is carried out and a procedure to remove the prostatic adenoma. He is able to "scrape up the extra fabric" and carry out "cauterization" of the capillaries which leads to bleeding. The last manipulation helps to avoid internal bleeding.
One of the essential points is the installation of the outer urethra catheter leading to the bladder. This tube will be removed a week after surgery.
All actions most commonly performed under General anesthesia. Sometimes allowed the use of spinal anesthesia in such cases.
The obvious advantage is that it does not apply the tearing of the epithelial tissues of the body, this means that postoperative rehabilitation should be faster and the recovery will be more effective the treatment will not last long. Besides, it leaves no scars, as the planar section was not.
Also shortened to the minimum period of stay of the patient in hospital after surgery:
- Transvesically adenomectomy.
This type of intervention has a mean planar abdominal incision. It is done in the area between the navel and the pubis. During open surgery, the surgeon cuts out all benign growths with a special scalpel. As well as after transurethral resection of the prostate, into the urethra and placed a catheter.
The advantages are that the procedure is often much more effective than ROUND. The disadvantages include a longer recovery period and stay in the postoperative observation in the hospital.
What could be the consequences transuterine resection of the prostate (TURP) and Transvesically adenomectomy?
The risk of disclosing internal bleeding. Among the consequences of this, perhaps the most dangerous. As after any other intervention, after removal of the adenoma of the prostate, there is always the risk of bleeding. This risk depends on the quality of the surgical intervention, as well as from the coagulation properties of the body, that is the function of blood coagulation.
If bleeding occurred during the procedure, can apply a blood transfusion, which can often be the only way to save the patient's life during a severe bleeding from a dangerous loss of blood. Can also occur the risk of clogging of blood vessels with clots of dried blood, which also poses a risk to the life of the patient after a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and Transvesically adenomectomy.
Statistics shows that such cases are quite common, especially among older men who have experienced the work of a surgeon.
Hydro-intoxication. Is also one of the most popular effects after removal of prostate adenoma and in the app one of the most difficult. Also, the abnormality can be referred to in medical literature as TUR syndrome. Factor in the development of the syndrome is released into the blood fluid, which is used to clean the external of the urethra during surgery to remove the prostate cancer.
And besides the most modern technologies, which are used during operation of the surgeon, allow to reduce to zero the probability of such consequences.
Urinary retention. Another popular effect is urinary retention after the intervention, and many of the reviews talk about it. Especially men aged over 60 years. The factors that provoke it is the consequence most often a blockage of the urinary duct by blood clots. Also, it can cause an error of the surgeon during the procedure. To avoid serious health problems, the patient needs to see a doctor for this problem.
In 1-2 out of 100 cases in men as a consequence of surgery to remove the adenoma of the prostate gland may experience urinary incontinence. Rarely this is permanent, most often it occurs in case of severe stress (psychological or physical alike). In more frequent cases, such a phenomenon is found in the first few days after surgery.
These problems often include the following:
- leakage of urine;
- difficulties in the process.
Of course, most of these problems pass with time without any additional medical intervention. If you are not, then most likely the surgeon during the operation made a mistake, and you will need to go to the hospital to correct the problem.
Infectious diseases. The probability of occurrence of infectious pathologies after surgery is always very high. According to some, this happens in 20% of cases. They are usually treated in standard ways – with antibiotics.
The danger is that inflammation can become chronic and periodically make itself felt.
Occurs ejaculation. This problem, perhaps, is more common of all. Some statistics say the figure of 99%. Why is this happening? The answer to this question lies in the fact that the seed after orgasm is thrown into the bladder. In the medical literature that an ejaculation is called retrograde. It has no harm to the male body, but there are problems with the ability to have children.
Violation of potency. Such complications is understandable, but they are less than 10% of cases. Of course, this is a potential consequence strikes fear in many patients. However, modern medicine is doing everything possible to nullify this possibility. If the operation is prepared and conducted correctly, do not be afraid of dysfunction of potency.