Urethritis is a disease characterized by the manifestation of the inflammatory process in the urethra. The most striking symptoms of urethritis are expressed painful sensations during urination and the appearance of discharge from the urethra. This disease is diagnosed in patients of both sexes.
Types of urethritis
Urethritis is an infectious disease, so its development is due to exposure to an infectious agent. Such errors can be viruses, fungi, bacteria, etc. Also in very rare cases, there are disease, radiation, toxic, allergic and other types of urethritis.
Depending on, due to the impact of the pathogen which develops urethritis, distinguish two different types of the disease: urethritis specific and non-specific. In the first case the appearance of specific provoke urethritis (chlamydia, gonococcus, Ureaplasma, etc.). Such infections can be combined with exposure to other viruses, fungi, bacteria, in the body can be multiple infections. In this case, the disease is complicated by the fact that, as a rule, a person does not record, if the acute stage of the disease becomes chronic.
Non-specific urethritis is manifested due to the impact of conditionally pathogenic microflora. Its occurrence is provoked by staphylococci, streptococci, Escherichia coli, fungi, etc. the Disease in both cases, it develops and manifests itself in practically the same way. But it is important to note that in case of detection of sexually transmitted infection all sexual partners of the patient should be screened and treated.
Features of urethritis
As a rule, the manifestation of specific urethritis occurs after intercourse. However, it happens that a person infected and for a time becomes a carrier of the infection. In this case, the disease may manifest itself at any time. Because sexual contact can occur, and nonspecific urethritis.
The reason for the development of the inflammatory process in the urethra to become failure immunity of the channel wall. The urethra is constantly infected, getting an infection is through blood, from the intestines, the skin, from other places. Especially severe infection occurs during sexual intercourse. Thus, while the wall of the urethra can cope with the infection, the disease does not develop. But at the slightest disruption of protective mechanisms of inflammation, which is accompanied by all the attendant symptoms.
There are a number of factors, which often become predisposing in the process of the disease. First of all urethritis in men and in women may occur due to one-off or permanent hypothermia. On the occurrence of urethritis is affected by the presence of urolithiasis. If the sand or the stone moves through the urethra, it is possible to injury the walls and the subsequent appearance of urethritis. Predispose to disease penile trauma, too strenuous exercise, irregular sexual life. However, too high sexual activity and frequent change of partners could also trigger the development of the disease. Not recommended too frequently eating spicy foods, and salty, sour dishes, pickled vegetables, large quantities of alcohol. Getting into the urine, substances from such foods can irritate the wall of the channel. The result could be inflammation or to show the progression of existing disease.
Provoking factor symptoms of urethritis often become insufficient drinking: irregular urination provoke the delay of the bacteria in the body, because the urine washes them out of the bladder wall. At some time between trips to the toilet the risk of inflammation is significantly increased. Also urethritis can occur in chronic inflammation that occur in the body.
Thus, there are many factors that may later become crucial in the development of urethritis. Thus, this disease can affect anyone.
The symptoms of urethritis
At the very beginning of the disease are manifested pronounced symptoms of urethritis: pain and stinging, burning sensation and itching during urination. Also in the process of urination a person may experience any other uncomfortable symptoms. Such feelings arise in the genitals, in the crotch.
Another important symptom of urethritis is the appearance of the discharge from the urethra. They may have varied. So, depending on what kind of pathogen provoked urethritis, discharge can be very rich or very poor. During exacerbation of the disease the edges of the external opening can become inflamed and close. However, in some cases, the development of urethritis is generally not accompanied by secretions.
Each subsequent exacerbation of the disease, the inflammation affects more and more significant part of the mucous membrane of the urethra. Therefore, the symptoms of urethritis with every exacerbation are becoming more pronounced. Therefore, if the disease is not treated with adequate methods, you may receive the complications of urethritis.
If we consider the symptoms of urethritis from the point of view of their manifestations in each of the types of disease, some noticeable differences in clinical picture.
So, in acute urethritis in men and women main symptom is severe burning and pain during urination, the presence of abundant discharge from the urethra, swelling and visible redness of the lips of the urethra. By torpid urethritis are observed subjective disorders. They do not appear clearly in some cases missing completely.
In the case of subacute urethritis is a reduction of pain and swelling in the urethra also decreases the amount of secretions. Only in the morning sometimes manifested crust. Urine has a transparent shade, there may be purulent thread.
In chronic urethritis, which is manifested due to improper treatment or complete lack thereof, possible neurotic phenomena. Most often, this form of urethritis are present small discharge from the urethra. They become more abundant, subject to the availability of some of the factors that provoke worsening of the disease. It could be excessive consumption of alcohol, agitation, hypothermia. Symptoms of urethritis in the chronic form is often similar to the symptoms of urethritis.
For total urethritis is characterized by inflammation of the urethra as a whole. The symptoms of this form of the disease similar to the symptoms of prostatitis. It is important to note that in the absence of treatment symptoms of bladder infection may disappear on their own. However, with each subsequent exacerbation of the disease and its symptoms will be expressed even stronger. As a result, the patient may have serious complications of urethritis.
Diagnosis of urethritis
For proper treatment it is necessary, first, to correctly establish the diagnosis. First of all, the doctor wants to know what causes provoked the occurrence of urethritis in a patient. So, for the establishment of the causative agent are different laboratory tests (smear, DNA diagnostics, PCR). Often the doctor orders an ultrasound of the pelvic organs to adequately assess their condition. Guided by the results obtained, the patient is assigned to a particular therapy.
Treatment of urethritis
For the treatment of urethritis was the most effective, it is necessary first to determine which infection triggered inflammatory processes of the urethra. In the treatment of cancer using the same regimen and for the treatment of thrush, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and other diseases of the reproductive system. To combat pathogenic microorganisms using various drugs. First of all, the antibiotics and also remedies with anti-fungal and antiviral action.
It is important that the treatment of urethritis occurred simultaneously in both sexual partners due to the high probability of transmission during sexual intercourse.
And specific and nonspecific urethritis are treated, guided by the same principles. This classification is important from the point of view of specific selection of drugs for the treatment of urethritis, and also to understand whether there is a need in the treatment of the sexual partner of the patient.
If the patient is diagnosed with a combination of urethritis and cystitis, it is important to use a complex approach to treatment. The doctor is required to appoint application of physiotherapeutic procedures, as well as instillation of medications into the bladder and the urethra. The treatment process can last several days or several weeks, depending upon the severity of the disease.
Important is the right approach to treatment and the patient. Effectively not only medication, but also prescribed by the doctor diet, abstinence from alcohol, drink plenty of liquids.
After therapy is finished and all symptoms have disappeared, should be mandatory to conduct the tests again to monitor the patient's condition. This will help to ensure that the infection has been destroyed.