Prostatitis in men

healthy prostate and prostatitis

Prostatitis in men belongs to the group of andrological urogenital pathologies (exclusively male). The disease occurs in the form of acute or chronic inflammation. This is the most common urological disease today. Previously, it was believed to manifest itself only at the age of 45-65 years, now more and more doctors are diagnosing "prostatitis" in 20-30 year olds. The disease has become much younger.

The nature of the prostate injury depends on the person's sexual habit.

  1. The defeat of the prostate in boys, before puberty, theoretically can be, but inflammation of the underdeveloped gland is not considered an independent disease.
  2. In men who are sexually active, prostatitis usually develops as an acute inflammation.
  3. Pathology of the gland, in mature and elderly people, can manifest itself in the form of three independent diseases (chronic prostatitis, adenoma - benign hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma - malignant hyperplasia).
  4. In people subject to castration (chemical, physical, radiation), the gland is atrophied.

The prostate (prostate) is the accessory gland in the male genital area. It is located at the junction of the urethra with the ejaculatory ducts. The significance of the gland before puberty is poorly understood. In a mature man, the prostate:

  • produces a secretion that dilutes the sperm, guarantees the vitality of the sperm in the woman's genital tract;
  • produces prostaglandins, substances that promote an increase in the blood supply to the penis before the erection starts, together with the testicles, participate in the production of the hormone testosterone;
  • provides rapid evacuation (release) of sperm from the urethra and participates in the formation of orgasm;
  • by means of reflex mechanisms prevents urine from entering the sperm during sexual arousal, participates in the complex erection mechanism.

The prostate is an organ that is vulnerable to disease-causing agents. It is inevitably involved in the pathology of the walls of the urethra, bladder and vas deferens. A powerful stream of blood, lymph, circulating through the branched vascular system of the injured gland, causes the phenomena of stagnation, edema of the organ, aggravates the pathology. The gland is well innervated, the damage is accompanied by pain.

What men should know about prostatitis

Prostatitis is an inflammatory disease of the prostate (prostate), usually caused by an infectious agent that enters the prostate through the urethra, bladder and adjacent rectum. However, an infection in itself does not mean the development of a disease, for that, as they say, "a favorable combination of circumstances" is necessary.

What are the factors that predispose to the appearance of prostatitis:

  1. Prolonged sedentary work and a sedentary lifestyle. The risk group includes drivers, programmers and everyone who spends the day working without getting up from the chair to walk and warm up.
  2. Regular intestinal disorders in the form of constipation.
  3. Severe or repeated hypothermia of the whole organism.
  4. Excessively active sex life or prolonged abstinence. Both are not useful for normal prostate function.
  5. Excessive food, spicy food and alcohol abuse, constant stress.

The prostate is a very small organ, 3 cm long and 4 cm wide, weighing only 20-25 grams. However, the secret of the prostate has bactericidal properties, therefore, the inflammatory process in the gland can only develop in the presence of stagnation of this organ, when its secret loses its properties.

How prostatitis manifests itself in men

Chronic and acute forms of prostatitis are differentiated:

  • Symptoms of acute prostatitis are characterized by severe inflammation in the prostate area. In this case, the patient has a severe fever (body temperature rises to 38-39 degrees), pain in the groin and perineum, pain when urinating and bowel movements.
  • Chronic prostatitis is less of a concern to men, so they may not pay immediate attention to the characteristic symptoms of the disease. The patient's body temperature occasionally rises to 37 degrees, sometimes he is disturbed by unpleasant sensations when going to the bathroom, some mucus or pus is released from the urethra. This secretion is one of the typical signs of chronic prostatitis.

Signs of prostatitis in men

There are six signs (precursors) of prostatitis - dysuria syndrome. The use as clinical markers is conditional. However, the presence of two of the six symptoms is a reason to see a urologist.

  1. The flow of urine slowly decreases or its reach is less than 20 cm.
  2. Difficulty urinating, drop by drop.
  3. Pain when urinating.
  4. Flashing, splitting, jet splash, process duration.
  5. Sensation of not completely emptying the bladder.
  6. Frequent urination at night.

It is strictly forbidden to draw clinical conclusions when these signs are detected. Prostatitis has a complex pathogenesis, with the inclusion of several mechanisms. It is impossible to treat the disease, focusing on general clinical symptoms. Contact a urologist to determine the symptoms, the nature of the damage, the stage of the disease, the indication for treatment. Diagnosis and treatment are carried out taking into account the organs and systems involved in the pathogenesis. In some cases, it is necessary to consult a venereologist, surgeon, oncologist.

Symptoms of prostatitis in men

Prostatitis can occur in the form of acute and chronic inflammation. Acute forms develop as catarrhal, follicular and parenchymal inflammation. The manifestations of chronic prostatitis are associated with a concomitant disease.

Prostatitis symptoms detected by clinical methods and functional tests. The following symptoms are of great importance for the recognition of the nature of the pathology, the causes and the mechanisms of the body's defense reactions.

  • Frequent urination with prostatitis.In a healthy person, the maximum number of cracks to urinate does not exceed 10-12 times a day, usually 4-5 times. The daily volume of urine in a healthy adult is 1, 000 to 2, 000 ml. The urine volume in which the desire occurs is 120-170 ml; the accumulation of urine above 350 ml causes a strong desire to empty the bladder. The inflammation products of prostatitis constantly irritate the receptors on the walls of Organs urinary organs, resulting in urination:
    • Frequent urination (polyuria), while the daily urine volume does not increase;
    • Urination in small portions, the inflammation products send false signals to the recipients about the filling of a half-empty bladder, after emptying the sensation of fullness;
    • Painful urination (strangulation) due to narrowing of the urethra due to inflammation of the prostate;
    • Difficulty urinating due to compression of the urethra by the inflamed gland, sometimes prostatitis is accompanied by an inability to empty the bladder (ischuria);
    • Urination at night (nocturia), irritated bladder walls give a constant signal of urine production.
    • Temperature with prostatitis.Characterized by an increase in body temperature to subfebrile and febrile values. The high temperature accompanies purulent prostatitis in the early stages of septic shock. In the late stage of septic shock, on the contrary, a low temperature (hypothermia) is characteristic of 35-36 ° C. Low temperature is dangerous for humans due to the tendency of blood platelets to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC syndrome). The prognosis of prostatitis complicated by sepsis in the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome is cautious or unfavorable.
    • Blood in the urine with prostatitis.The symptom of hematuria (blood in the urine) is a rare but very dangerous symptom. Persistent bleeding is difficult to stop. There are several causes of hematuria in prostatitis, including:
      • purulent fusion of the gland with a portion of a blood vessel and perforation of the vessel in the urethra;
      • accidental trauma during instrumental examinations of Organs genitourinary organs;
      • Prostatitis complicated by hyperplasia, most often malignant.
      • Pain syndrome.Complicated prostatitis is accompanied by pain outside urination. Sometimes, the pain occurs intermittently, such as during a bowel movement. The cause of the pain is the constant irritation of the gland by the inflammation products. Dull (aching) pain in the perineum and anus is often seen.

      Laboratory tests that confirm the symptoms of prostatitis. They are used to clarify the presence of inflammation, to determine the severity of the inflammatory and septic process.

      • Complete blood count. The indicators that confirm prostatitis are: an increase in the number of white blood cells, a change in the white blood cell count towards an increase in the number of cells stabbed, an increase in ESR.
      • Urinalysis. It reveals latent pyuria (pus in the urine) and bacteriuria (bacterial contamination) in the first portion of the urine. Use the three-glass method to detect latent pus and bacteria at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of urination. Repeated, with a frequency of several days, the bacteriological examination of the urine is performed to determine the change in the species of bacterial flora.
      • Blood seeding tank. The method is indicated for symptoms of progressive sepsis accompanied by debilitating (agitated) fever.
      • The study of the cellular linkage of immunity in prostatitis complements the understanding of the nature of the pathogenesis, to predict the likelihood of developing sepsis

      Instrumental methods used to clarify the symptoms of prostatitis. The following methods are of diagnostic value.

      • Transrectal ultrasound method (TRUS). Its high diagnostic value is observed. The method has contraindications associated with the prohibition of massage of the gland, in certain stages of the disease.
      • X-rays of the bladder. Choose projections that are convenient for examining the prostate. Before the X-ray, the urographin is injected into the bladder, a radiopaque substance inert to the body.
      • Prostate puncture biopsies have strictly limited indications for prostatitis.

      Causes of prostatitis in men

      There are several groups of causes of prostatitis, including:

      1. Complication of a man's past illnesses (PPP infections, colds, inflammation of Organs pelvic organs, complicated by staphylococci and other bacterial, viral infections, fungal agents, especially in the context of reduced immunity and general body resistance), chronic gynecological infections in a woman who is a sexual partner.
      2. Urethral reflux. Violating the prostate's ability to prevent urine from returning to the reproductive ducts is called urethral reflux. The result is the bacterial spread of the prostate. Urethral reflux is a consequence of inadequate catheterization, as well as previous inflammation of the urethra. In this case, urethral bleeding occurs - a pathological increase in the lumen of the urethra. Urethral - vesiculoseminal reflux, bacterial seeding is combined with the formation of stones (stones) in the prostate and in the ejaculatory ducts.
      3. Violation of the rhythm of sexual activity, including lack or excess of sex, regular delay in ejaculation.
      4. The stagnation of venous blood in Organs urogenital organs of the small pelvis of men is a consequence of sedentary lifestyle (hemorrhoids, sexual disorders, other reasons);
      5. Hormonal imbalance associated with insufficient production of male hormones by the sex glands, resulting in a general weakening of the skeletal and smooth muscle tone, impaired erectile function and other disorders.

      Classification of prostatitis

      Distinguish between bacterial and non-bacterial prostatitis:

      1. Bacterial prostatitis is caused by pathogenic microorganisms that enter the prostate from the outside. These include streptococci, staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Proteus and others. Many bacteria are from the normal flora of our body, but under certain conditions they enter the prostate and cause inflammation. Prostatitis can also develop as a result of sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, gardnerellosis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis.
      2. The group of non-infectious prostatitis includes:
        • Congestive (congestive) prostatitis. It is caused by congestion in the small pelvis. Incomplete ejaculation, sexual excesses, prolonged abstinence, interrupted intercourse - all contribute to venous stasis in Organs pelvic organs.
        • Sclerotic prostatitis. It is characterized by a decrease in the size and functions of the prostate, the compaction of its tissues due to the death of prostatic cells with their replacement by sclerotic tissue. One of the reasons for the development of this form of the disease is frequent constipation, the ingestion of certain medications and multiple infections. Unfortunately, this prostatitis cannot be treated.
        • Calculated prostatitis. The result of the development of calculous prostatitis is the presence of phosphate and oxalate stones in the gland. Reaching a large size, they cause a sharp pain in the urethra. The treatment method consists of dissolving the formed stones.
        • Prostatopotic prostatitis. This disease causes chronic pelvic pain, but its etiology is not fully understood. It is believed that it can be triggered by a reverse flow of secretion, damage to the muscles of the perineum, pathology of the bladder neck and psychological factors.
        • Atypical forms. In the atypical form, the patient may complain of pain in the legs, lower back and sacrum, which is unusual for the characteristic symptoms of prostatitis. The outcome of treatment depends on the duration of the disease, the activity of inflammatory processes and the presence of complications.

      If you do not deal with the treatment of prostatitis, then in its neglected form, it leads to decreased potency, infertility, depression, strained pain in the perineum and other complications.

      Why prostatitis is dangerous, the consequences of prostatitis

      The consequences depend on age, the state of the immune system, the presence of bad habits. Therefore, in people in the older age group, with weakened immunity, with a history of alcoholism, drug addiction, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the consequences of the disease are more severe.

      • Influence of prostatitis on potency.A damaged gland, with decompensated functional activity, reduces the production of substances involved in the formation of an erection of the male genital organ. The consequence of prostatitis is a slow release of seminal fluid during intercourse, a decrease in the fullness of sensations during intercourse, in advanced forms of erectile dysfunction.
      • Influence of prostatitis on conception. A damaged prostate dramatically reduces the high-quality secretion-producing activity needed to maintain sperm activity in the woman's birth canal. The secret of the inflamed prostate, when entering a woman's birth canal during sexual intercourse, reacts with the immune rejection of the female body, the development of gynecological diseases and the impossibility of conception.
      • Prostatitis causes damage within the gland and the body. Inflammation complicated by microflora increases the risk of prostate abscess. Abscess formation - purulent fusion of a part of the glandular parenchyma with the formation of a capsule around the focus. The disease with formation of mineralized stones in the cavity is a consequence of the prostate complicated by reflux of the damaged prostate. The consequence of prostatitis is also: acute ischuria, urolithiasis, kidney failure, inflammation of Organs genitourinary organs and other diseases.

      Is it possible to have sex with prostatitis

      Dysrhythmia of intimate life has been proven to be one of the causes of inflammation of the gland. Regular ejaculation with moderate frequency has a positive effect on the pathogenesis of prostatitis with subclinical and moderate clinical manifestations of prostatitis. Some therapeutic manipulations and stages of the disease involve a temporary ban on sex. For detailed recommendations, consult your doctor. Have sex with prostatitis, observe the moderation and security of intimate life.

      Is prostatitis sexually transmitted? Prostatitis is a purely male disease that does not have a specific viral, bacterial or fungal origin. Meanwhile, inflammation of the prostate poses a danger to gynecological health. Semen, containing inflammation products, entering the female genitals, in the context of a decrease in the protective barriers of the birth canal, is a real threat to the conception and birth of the fetus. A healthy lifestyle and reliable male contraception are an easy way to protect sexual partners from mutual problems.

      Is it possible to recover from prostatitis once and for all?

      Most men who have undergone prostatitis treatment more than once are interested in one question - is it possible to get rid of this nasty disease forever. According to experts, the effectiveness of the treatment depends largely on the presence and severity of the irreversible consequences that have occurred in the prostate. They can be scars, stones, calcifications.

      To stop the development of the inflammatory process in the early stages, only a timely visit to the doctor can. In this case, there are no irreversible complications in the prostate and the possibility of total cure exists. When areas of sclerotic tissue have already formed - scars, there are calcifications and small stones that cannot be eliminated in any way, so repeated inflammation can probably occur. This is chronic prostatitis.

      In addition to treatment, an important factor in overcoming this disease is also how much the patient is ready to change his previous lifestyle - irregular sex life and constantly sitting in a chair. If he does not want such changes, then, with great confidence, we can say that the inflammatory process will soon return. It is the patient's reluctance to exclude these negative factors from his life that connects the idea that prostatitis is incurable.

      Duration, treatment regime is determined by the doctor, based on the results of physical, laboratory and instrumental studies. Antibacterial drugs are at the heart of prostatitis therapy. The use of vitamins, physiotherapeutic procedures, anti-inflammatories, analgesics, antibiotics is shown.

      Diet for prostatitis

      Compliance with diet, use of a certain set of products:

      • reduces pain,
      • improves the microcirculation of blood and lymph in the vessels of the gland,
      • strengthens the body's protective functions,
      • normalizes intestinal function,
      • reduces nighttime urine production.

      Products for prostatitis. Obsolete:

      1. Strong coffee, spicy dishes - increase blood flow to the gland, stimulate pain;
      2. Fat, fatty meat, eggs, flour - increases the deposition of cholesterol in the capillary walls, reduces the microcirculation of blood flow in the gland;
      3. Alcoholic beverages - reduce immunity;
      4. Foods that contain coarse fiber, salty and spicy foods - alter intestinal motility;
      5. A large amount of liquid (at night), salty, smoked food (during illness) - increases the volume of the liquid, retains it in the body.

      It is advisable to include in the diet: vegetable salads seasoned with olive oil, vegetables and fruits from the region of residence, natural juices, nuts, dried fruits, cooked lean meats. A set of products for prostatitis can be checked with a nutritionist.

      Preventive measures

      Prevention is based on simple rules, it is easy to follow them.

      • Take long walks regularly (this style of walking is the most physiological);
      • Eat well, lead a healthy lifestyle;
      • Use male contraception.

      To prevent the development of prostatitis and its complications, you should immediately contact a urologist for any genital disease. It is also not necessary to wait for any symptoms to appear, but at least once a year to see a doctor. At a medical institution, you will have an exam and you will know for sure that your health in the genital area is fine.

      Do not delay visiting the urologist and those who suffer from constipation, abuse alcohol, spicy and smoked foods, those who do not practice sports and have a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Due to the high risk of illness, these people must undergo a mandatory exam, even if there is no indication for that.

      As you know, men do not like going to the doctor and, when they are already unbearable, they discover that the disease has a chronic course. But the course of treatment could have been completed much earlier. Now, with chronic prostatitis, it will take at least 1-2 months to be treated.