Prostatitis is an inflammation and swelling of the tissues of the prostate (prostate). And 50% of men between the ages of 18 and 50 face such a disappointing diagnosis.
The disease usually develops slowly, with no obvious signs and for many years it brings a minimum of concern to its owner.
A man has been living with prostatitis for years, does not see a doctor, and allows the disease to become chronic with serious complications.
Even so, when the patient arrives at the clinic, it is too late: prostatitis becomes malignant or leads to infertility. So what are the first signs of the disease and how to deal with it?
Prostate disease in men has characteristic symptoms and requires immediate treatment. But the disease is insidious. Sometimes your signs don't show up for years.
Meanwhile, the inflammatory process develops slowly, affecting more and more new tissues and leading to impotence and infertility.
In order not to start the disease, the man must pay attention to the characteristic signs that accompany any type of prostatitis:
- pain and burning sensation in the perineum, lower abdomen, scrotum and prostate location area;
- increased urination, weak flow, appearance of urethral pus in the form of white fibers or flakes;
- premature ejaculation or, conversely, prolonged (sometimes painful), long nocturnal erection, sexual dysfunction, decreased sexual desire;
- deterioration in sperm quality, change in sperm quantity;
- fatigue and irritability, general weakness.
Symptoms of the disease may appear all together or manifest separately; sometimes they are so subtle that they are attributed to fatigue or lack of sleep. If a man notices at least one of the above symptoms, he will need to see a doctor.
It should not be assumed that prostate problems are the luck of people who have crossed the threshold of 30 years. Prostatitis can occur in any sexually mature man, and now people ages 18 to 20 are getting sick more and more often.
Causes of disease
Prostatitis in men is caused by several reasons:
- long abstinence from sexual life, stagnation and poor blood circulation in the organs of the genitourinary system;
- injuries, hypothermia, age-related changes;
- Genital infections, viruses, bacteria.
In combination with factors that create a favorable situation for damage to the body, these causes cause inflammation of the prostate.
- promiscuous or irregular sex life, artificial prolongation or interruption of sexual intercourse;
- sedentary lifestyle, sedentary lifestyle;
- previous infections, chronic diseases of the genitourinary system;
- decreased immunity, tendency to allergies, hormonal disturbances;
- frequent hypothermia;
- premature emptying of the bladder and irregular bowel movements;
- stress and emotional overload;
- excessive physical activity or lifting heavy objects;
- smoking and alcoholism;
- lack of vitamins, micro and macro elements.
If a man's body is affected by at least one of the above factors, he has a high probability of developing prostatitis. In this case, it is advisable to have a preventive exam every six months.
Prostatitis can take different forms and be caused by different reasons. Depending on that, it is divided into different types.
A large number of varieties of prostatitis lead to the fact that in each case an individual treatment must be prescribed. You should not listen to the advice of friends and their drug reviews. What worked in one case will turn out to be completely ineffective in another.
It develops due to the effect on prostate tissue of pathogenic microorganisms that enter the prostate through the urethra or bladder and lead to inflammation.
Acute prostatitis sometimes occurs after chronic infectious diseases - sinusitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, caries - or as a result of hormonal disturbances.
Signs of acute prostatitis manifest themselves intensely:
- constant weakness, fatigue, malaise;
- slight increase in temperature;
- pain in the groin, anus, sometimes extending to the back, lower back, and legs;
- frequent urination, inability to completely empty the bladder, low pressure, stinging, urinary retention;
- lack of erection, impaired ejaculation;
- purulent discharge from the urinary tract.
Acute prostatitis is dangerous because the inflammation spreads quickly, affecting nearby organs. This sometimes leads to extensive abscess of adjacent tissues and vascular thrombosis.
Usually, treatment is not carried out at home, but in hospital. If therapy is correct, acute prostatitis is completely cured.
If treatment is inappropriate or insufficient, the disease becomes chronic.
It becomes a consequence of untreated acute infectious prostatitis (bacterial form) or arises from trauma, hypothermia (bacterial form).
Symptoms of chronic prostatitis during the remission period are barely manifested.
A man can celebrate:
- discomfort or slight pull on the groin;
- increased urination, weakened flow;
- constant weakness, apathy;
- decreased sexual desire.
How does chronic prostatitis manifest during an exacerbation?
It is accompanied by symptoms characteristic of an acute condition. Chronic prostatitis is characterized by a wave-shaped course: after an exacerbation, a period of remission will certainly follow.
Men prefer to wait for the acute period and forget about the disease for several months. Few go to the doctor.
The cause of infectious prostatitis is damage to prostate tissue by viruses, bacteria, or fungi.
By the type of microorganism-pathogen, the following types of infectious prostatitis are distinguished:
- bacterial (intestinal or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, streptococci);
- viral (herpes virus, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus);
- mycoplasma (mycoplasma);
- Trichomonas (Trichomonas);
- gonorrhea (gonococcus);
- chlamydia (chlamydia);
- tuberculous (Koch's bacillus);
- fungi (Candida fungus);
The symptoms of infectious prostatitis repeat the symptoms of the acute form of the disease.
If the disease is left untreated, it leads to a purulent process that quickly spreads to all nearby organs. This condition, which threatens the patient's life, becomes an indication for surgical intervention.
Its cause is stones in the prostate. This form is found in elderly men who have refused treatment due to a chronic illness.
The symptoms of calculous prostatitis are similar to those of a chronic disease, but they are sometimes supplemented with specific signs:
- pain in the sacrum and lower back that worsens after walking, sitting for a long time, or having sex;
- the presence of blood in the semen.
It is most often found while undergoing an ultrasound.
It occurs due to stagnation of secretion from the prostate or blood in the veins that permeate this organ. Congestion is a consequence of irregular sex life, wearing tight underwear, physical inactivity or alcohol abuse.
Symptoms of this form of the disease are mild, resembling signs of chronic prostatitis.
Each type of prostatitis has its own consequences for the body.
For example, untreated acute prostatitis over time becomes chronic or leads to the following complications:
- purulent inflammation of the prostate;
- prostate swelling;
- acute urinary retention.
Usually, these consequences appear infrequently as acute prostatitis manifests itself clearly and the man goes to the doctor.
Chronic prostatitis, which is not so obvious and develops over a long period of time, can cause many more problems.
Complications of chronic prostatitis and their consequences for male health:
- prostate tissue sclerosis;
- cystitis, pyelonephritis;
- prostate abscess;
- vesiculitis, epididymitis;
- calculating formations in the bladder and prostate;
- renal insufficiency;
- adenoma and prostate cancer.
In advanced chronic prostatitis, many pathological changes are irreversible. For example, problems with urination and sexual dysfunction will no longer be eliminated simply by curing prostatitis.
If characteristic symptoms occur, the man needs to see a urologist or andrologist. The doctor makes a diagnosis of "acute prostatitis" based on an inquiry, patient examination, digital rectal examination, and analysis of prostate secretion.
Typically, these studies do not cause discomfort, but during an exacerbation they can cause painful sensations.
The study of prostate secretion reveals the nature of the disease - bacterial or non-bacterial. With the bacterial origin of prostatitis, the secret is also investigated regarding antibiotic resistance.
Chronic inflammation is harder to detect.
For this, a whole range of laboratory and hardware techniques is used:
- bacteriological seeding of prostate and urine secretions to determine infection;
- biochemical analysis of venous blood to determine the level of ESR, PSA and leukocytes;
- urethral secretion analysis;
- prostate biopsy;
- Ultrasound (through the abdominal wall) and TRUS (through the rectum);
- Magnetic resonance and computed tomography of the damaged organ;
- urodynamic research;
- X-ray examination.
Why can't the diagnosis be made based only on the clinical manifestations of prostatitis?
The fact is that the physician must identify not only the presence of the disease, but also its cause, in order to choose an effective treatment.
If acute prostatitis can be eliminated within 1 course of therapy, chronic prostatitis will be treated much longer. Sometimes the patient becomes a regular visitor to the urologist's office. The more correctly the treatment is selected and the more precisely the patient follows the doctor's recommendations, the longer the remission period.
How to treat prostatitis?
Treatment of prostatitis is a time-consuming process that takes at least 1, 5 months and involves a series of procedures.
The key to the therapy's success is a timely visit to the clinic, the physician's high professionalism, correct diagnosis, and strict patient compliance with all specialist recommendations.
For prostatitis, a complex treatment is prescribed, which includes the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics in the exacerbation phase and physiotherapy and massage in the remission phase. These methods alone will not have the desired effect.
Drug therapy lasts 3 to 4 weeks and includes the following drug groups:
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to eliminate pain and inflammation;
- antibacterial drugs (fluoroquinols, cephalosporins, penicillins, macrolides, tetracyclines) for the treatment of bacterial prostatitis and diseases caused by hypothermia;
- immunomodulators, vitamin and mineral complexes to stimulate the body's defenses;
- hormonal drugs to eliminate hormonal imbalance and stagnation of prostate secretion in your tissues;
- muscle relaxants and alpha blockers to relax muscles (eliminate prostate inflammation, relieve urethra and bladder spasm, facilitate the urination process).
Especially effective are medications available in the form of rectal suppositories.
They release the active substance into prostate tissue faster than pills and injections and have a better healing effect.
Acute prostatitis is treated with medication until the disease enters the remission stage. In advanced cases, the patient is referred to the hospital and up to 5 groups of antibiotics are prescribed at the same time.
Physical therapy is used as an adjunctive treatment and is only used in combination with medications.
It is impossible to treat the prostate with physical therapy devices until the flare-up symptoms are completely eliminated.
Types of physiotherapy:
- electrical stimulation;
- laser treatment;
- transrectal magnetotherapy;
- phonophoresis and phototherapy;
- prostate massage.
Physical therapy gives the best results for chronic and congestive prostatitis.
But with an infectious and calculating illness, massage should be abandoned - it will only help the infection to spread to nearby organs faster or set stones in motion.
Surgical treatment can be radical (removal of the prostate) or mild (removal of part of the prostate or injections to shrink it).
Indications for surgery:
- narrowing of the urethra, phimosis of the glans penis and acute urinary retention;
- purulent process in prostate tissues and nearby organs;
- stagnation of the secretion of the prostate in its cavity due to the malfunction of the seminal vesicles;
- stones in the prostate cavity;
- prostate adenoma or sclerotic changes in its tissues.
What is prostate adenoma in men? This is a benign mass that is usually treated with surgical methods. It is a consequence of chronic prostatitis and occurs in men over 50 years of age.
This type of treatment is not the best option, as it targets the effect of the disease and not its cause.
Furthermore, he cannot regain lost health: he will only delay the development of the disease.
Well-known popular recipes should only be used as an adjunct to the main treatment prescribed by a physician.
- take decoctions of chamomile, marigold, birch buds, sage;
- the use of alcoholic tinctures of St. John's wort and Echinacea;
- use urological patches with herbal extracts;
- the use of candles with propolis, ichthyol or hawthorn candles.
It is impractical to use folk remedies as the main treatment.
They will not be able to slow the course of the disease or cure it, and precious time will already be wasted.
Preventive measures aim to eliminate the factors that contribute to the development of prostatitis and the timely diagnosis of an existing disease.
- strengthening the immune system;
- refusal of casual sex;
- timely treatment of infectious and venereal diseases;
- quitting smoking and excessive alcohol consumption;
- healthy foods, exclusion from the diet of spicy and smoked foods, soft drinks, energy drinks;
- fighting stress;
- avoid hypothermia and overheating;
- wear loose underwear made from natural materials;
- regular sports, exercise therapy (running, walking, abdominal exercises, squats, "birch"), long walks.
A good sex life is important to prevent prostatitis. Phenomena such as artificially prolonged or interrupted intercourse and repeated intercourse are completely unacceptable.
Sex life must be regular: prolonged abstinence is unacceptable, as is sexual excitement that does not end with ejaculation.
In addition, every man should have a routine examination by a urologist every six months. The doctor will notice the signs of an incipient illness and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Early stage prostatitis is much easier to cure than a chronic disease.